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 8:28:49 AM (CST) Thursday, July 31, 2014


Nutrient Composition of Whole Vertebrate Prey  (excluding fish)
Prepared By:  Ellen S. Dierenfeld, PhD,  Heather L. Alcorn, BS, and Krista L. Jacobsen, MS - 2002.

Table 1. Proximate composition and energy content of whole prey on a dry matter (DM) basis. Values expressed as weighted means or as raw data when "n" was not stated.

  Prey species n DM
%
Crude Protein
%
CrudeFat
%
Ash 
%
              

Gross
energy
kcal/g

Notes

Calf, Holstein
Bos taurus
72 22.5 60.0 8.9 16.0 4.08 Fetal age, 190-270 days
Deer, white-tailed
Odocoileus virginianus
  22.3 80.7 6.3 17.9 4.62 Neonatal
Deer, white-tailed
Odocoileus virginianus
22 36.9 57.0 24.5 13.8 5.63  Juvenile, ingesta-free
Deer, white-tailed
Odocoileus virginianus
6 41.1 47.4 41.4 11.4 6.34 Adults, ingesta-free
Guinea pig
Cavia porcellus
  29.1 51.2 34.7 14.1 5.95 Neonatal males
Guinea pig
Cavia porcellus
6 31.3 51.4 46.1 9.2 6.99ª Males, 10 week
Hamster
Mesocricetus auratus
6 30.3 49.8 34.7 7.5 5.98 Juvenile
Hare, snowshoe
Lepus americanus
  28.0 73.0 2.9 17.5 4.66  
Mink   18.0 72.8 11.7 10.0 5.39 Neonatal
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
287 19.1 64.2 17.0 9.7 4.87ª Neonatal, <3 g
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
292 18.2 44.2 30.1 8.5 6.65ª  Juvenile, 3-10 g
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
108 32.7 55.8 23.6 11.8 5.25ª Adult or >10 g
Mouse, jumping
Napaeozapus insignis
  29.7 62.9 18.7 12.9 5.50  
Mouse, old-field
Peromyscus polionotus
44 17.4 70.3 8.6 11.3 4.60ª Neonatal
Mouse, old-field
Peromyscus polionotus
171 29.8 54.6 21.9 10.7 5.29ª Juvenile
Mouse, white-footed
Peromyscus leucopus
  34.1 59.7 19.9 12.9 5.51  
Pig, domestic 32 28.9 50.7 33.2 11.9 5.78 Juvenile
Rabbit, black-tailed jack
Lepus californicus
3 27.0 74.4 4.5 15.0 4.54 Dressed carcass
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
  15.4 72.1 13.0 14.9 5.06 Neonatal
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
2 26.2 65.2 15.8 3.4 5.30 Dressed carcass
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
1 28.1 63.5 15.3 9.4 5.41  
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
1 33.5 71.2 14.6 11.1 5.22 Eviscerated, incl. hide
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
2 31.3 63.2 20.0 16.0 5.25ª Eviscerated, incl. hide
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
6 28.4 61.8 22.6 12.8 5.42ª Meat incl. heart, lungs, kidneys
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
5 20.8 57.9 23.7 12.2 5.30ª Neonatal, <10 g
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
5 30.0 56.1 27.5 14.8 5.55ª Juvenile, 10-50 g
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
51 33.9 61.8 32.6 9.8 6.37ª Adult or >50 g
Squirrel, fox
Sciurus niger
  17.6 55.7 NAb NA 4.89 Neonatal
Squirrel, gray
Sciurus carolinensis
  33.3 62.4 18.4 11.6 5.54  
Vole, bank
Clethrionomys glareolus
  15.5 63.2 24.5 10.3 5.68 Neonatal
Vole, common
Microtus arralis
  16.5 64.2 16.4 12.7 4.97 Neonatal
Vole, meadow & red-backed
Clethrionomys gapperi
  32.0 62.5 15.5 13.5 5.34  
                 

Chicken
Gallus gallus
66 25.6 64.9 22.4 6.4 5.80 One-day-old
Chicken
Gallus gallus
16 32.5 42.3 37.8 9.4 5.90ª Adult
Duck, mallard
Anas platyrhynchos
3 33.1 63.1  26.4 9.5 5.92 Dressed carcass
Quail, Japanese
Coturnix coturnix
18 34.6 71.5 31.9  9.9c 6.79ª  
                 

Frog, Cuban tree
Osteopilus septentrionalis
19 26.6 NA 4.8 NA    
Frog, green
Rana clamitans
7 22.5 71.2 10.2 NA 4.80ª  
Gecko, fox
Hemidactylus garnoti
5 25.3 NA NA NA    
Lizard
Coleonyx variegatus
151 28.8 NA NA 15.9 5.50d Nineteen species
Lizard, anolis
Anolis carolinensis
13 29.4 67.4 NA NA NA Adult
Lizard, bearded dragon
Pogona vitteceps
17 17.9 63.6 NA NA NA Various ages
Snake
Chilomeniscus cinctus
4 28.0 NA NA 17.0 6.51d Four species
Tadpole, bullfrog
Rana catesbeinana
1 12.4 NA 16.4 44.0 NAb Young
Tadpole, bullfrog
Rana catesbeinana
1 17.6 34.4 31.4 19.9 4.73ª Mature
Tadpole
Peltophryne lemur
3 6.9 23.3 21.3 22.7 4.59 Puerto Rican crested toad
Toad, southern
Bufo terrestris
1 26.4 61.8 13.7 NA 4.61ª Juvenile
Toad, southern
Bufo terrestris
4 28.2 61.0 14.0 NA 4.25ª Adult
Dressed carcass = eviscerated whole body with head, feet, and skin removed.
ª  Calculated by adding the product of % crude protein x 5.43 kcal/g to the product of % crude fat x 9.11 kcal/g.29
Not analyzed.
c   Fat-free basis.
Ash-free basis.

 

Table 2. Vitamin A and E content of whole prey on a dry matter (DM) basis. Values expressed as weighted means or as raw data when "n" was not stated.

 

Prey species

n Vitamin A
IU/kg
Vitamin E
IU/kg
Notes

Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) 6 16,506 24.2 Males, 10 week
Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) 2 26,666 12.4  
Mouse, domestic (Mus domesticus) 6 35,533 52.7 Neonatal, <3 g
Mouse, domestic (Mus domesticus) 17 30,888 173.9 Juvenile, 3-10 g
Mouse, domestic (Mus domesticus) 24 578,272 100.4 Adult or >10 g
Prairie dog, black-tailed (Cynomys ludovicianus)   30,830 82.6 Mean of range
Prairie dog, white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus)   16,000 88.5 Mean of range
Rabbit, domestic (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 2 6,200 NAª  
Rabbit, domestic (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 2 NAª 60.0 Eviscerated carcass
Rabbit, domestic (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 6 NA 16.2 Meat incl. heart,lungs,
kidneys
Rat (Rattus norvegicus) 5 21,333 470.4 Neonatal, <10 g
Rat (Rattus norvegicus) 24 151,389 139.2 Adult or >50g
           

Chicken (Gallus gallus) 6 35,600 51.3 Males
Quail, Japanese (Coturnix coturnix) 18 70,294 66.8 Diet effects
           

Frog, green (Rana clamitans) 7 25,110 82.2  
Lizard, anolis (Anolis carolinensis) 19 4,880 44.8 Adult
Lizard, bearded dragon (Pogona vitteceps) 15 38,562 95.5 Various ages
Tadpole, bullfrog (Rana catesbeinana) 1 NA 21.6 Young
Tadpole, bullfrog (Rana catesbeinana) 1 NA 18.0 Mature
Tadpole (Peltophryne lemur) 3 8,727 62.3 Puerto Rican crested toad
Toad, southern (Bufo terrestris) 1 15,940 231.8 Juvenile
Toad, southern (Bufo terrestris) 4 38,261 369.0 Adult
ª   Not analyzed

NOTE: Vitamin E deficiency, adversely impacting reproduction and health, has been documented in raptors that were being fed a diet consisting only of whole quail.  To provide adequate levels of vitamin E to the secondary consumer it is necessary to feed the prey quail approximately 200IU vitamin E per kg. dietary dm.

 

Table 3. Mineral content of whole prey on a dry matter (DM) basis. Values expressed as weighted means or as raw data when "n" was not stated.

  Prey Species n Ca
%
P
%
Mg
%
Na
%
K
%
Cu
mg/kg
Fe
mg/kg
Zn
mg/kg
Mn
mg/kg
Notes
Calf, Holsteinª
Bos taurus
72 4.12 2.88 0.12 0.97 0.86 1.8 37.8 16.3 0.3 Fetal age 190-270 days
Deer, white-tailed
Odocoileus virginianus
6 4.82 2.49 0.12 0.20 0.54 5.0 81.1 65.6 NAb Juvenile, ingesta-free
Deer, white-tailed
Odocoileus virginianus
  3.09 2.26 0.19 0.39 0.95 26.1 164.5 68.4 28.5 Adult, ingesta-free
Guinea pig
Cavia porcellus
6 3.02 NA 0.07 NA NA 5.6 56.4 46.4 6.6  Males, 10 week
Hamster
Mesocricetus auratus
6 2.51 2.03 0.12 0.46 0.88 12.0 237.0 94.0 45.0 Juvenile
Mouse, cotton   4.05 1.67 0.12 0.24 NA NA 200.0 98.0 NA  
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
5 1.17 NA 0.11 NA NA 19.2 181.3 82.5 0.2 Neonatal, <3 g
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
5 1.47 NA 0.09 NA NA 13.4 153.6 75.4 13.1 Juvenile, 3-10 g
Mouse, domestic
Mus domesticus
78 2.98 1.72 0.16 NA NA 6.7 137.9 67.5 7.7 Adult or >10 g
Mouse, golden   3.74 1.92 0.14 0.36 NA NA 240.0 110.0 NA  
Mouse, old-field
Peromyscus polionotus
  1.60 1.86 0.06 0.43 1.20 NA 208.5 125.0 10.6 Mean of range
Prairie dog, black-tailed
Cynomys ludovicianus
  1.54 1.14 0.07 0.26 0.47 5.0 215.0 75.0 3.5  
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
2 5.93 3.43 0.18 0.26 0.72 4.6 100.0 84.0 2.4  
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
1 1.85 1.36 0.12 0.44 0.87 3.0 100.0 76.0 3.0 Eviscerated
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
3 2.25 1.72 0.19 NAª NA 22.2 127.0 73.0 2.4 Eviscerated
Rabbit, domestic
Oryctolagus cuniculus
2 0.64 0.53 0.15 NA NA 41.0 90.4 55.4 1.2 Whole, incl. GIT
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
5 1.85 NA 0.14 NA NA 60.6 275.8 113.6 6.2 Neonatal, <10 g
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
10 2.07 NA 0.12 NA NA 11.3 133.2 81.9 2.6 Juvenile, 10-50 g
Rat
Rattus norvegicus
49 2.62 1.48 0.08 NA NA 6.3 148.0 62.1 11.0 Adult or >50 g
Shrew, short-tail
Blarina brevicauda
  3.44 1.72 0.14 0.42 NA NA 500.0 120.0 NA  
Squirrel, fox
Sciurus niger
  2.56 1.30 0.13 0.84 1.07 NA NA NA NA Mean of range
                         
Chicken
Gallus gallus
66 1.69 1.22 0.05 0.71 0.80 5.2 119.5 97.4 3.9 One-day-old
Chicken
Gallus gallus
16 2.22 1.40 0.50 NA NA 3.6 122.2 116.1 10.1 Adult
Goldcrest
Regulus regulus
  2.84 1.88 0.11 0.40 0.58 NA NA NA NA  
Pipit, meadow
Anthus pratensis
  2.04 1.65 0.13 0.83 1.28 NA 400.0 107.0 13.5 Mean of range
Quail, Japanese
Coturnix coturnix
18 3.43 NA 0.06 NA NA 2.6 74.9 53.0 6.4  
Rook
Corvus frugilegus
  2.04 1.75 0.09 0.45 0.94 11.0 475.0 96.5 31.0 Mean of range
Tit, blue
Parus spp.
  3.28 2.04 0.10 0.37 0.58 NA NA NA NA  
Tit, coal
Parus spp.
  3.31 2.08 0.11 0.39 0.63 NA NA NA NA  
                         
Frog, Cuban tree
Osteopilus septentrionalis
19 4.79 2.57 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA  
Frog, green
Rana clamitans
7 4.29 1.87 2.47 0.55 NA 11.2 102.6 100.3 11.5  
Gecko, fox
Hemidactylus garnoti
5 5.22 2.18 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA  
Lizard, anolis
Anolis carolinensis
13 5.54 2.88 0.15 0.33 0.73 5.0 127.8 142.5 4.0 Adult
Lizard, bearded dragon
Pogona vitteceps
18 3.53 2.35 0.16 0.66 1.12 8.9 276.4 133.3 9.3 Various ages
Tadpole, bullfrog
Rana catesbeinana
  2.60 NA 0.68 NA 0.18 3.3 NA 19.3 59.0  
Tadpole
Peltophryne lemur
3 7.67 1.67 0.15 0.73 0.88 46.7 610.2 278.8 58.4 Puerto Rican crested toad
Toad, southern
Bufo terrestris
1 5.16 2.68 0.07 0.36 NA 127.0 294.7 471.6 11.1 Juvenile
Toad, southern
Bufo terrestris
4 2.94 1.79 0.06 0.36 NA 117.4 286.0 662.9 4.7 Adult
ª   All mineral values for this prey species were calculated from equation given in reference.
b   Not analyzed.

Key to minerals:
Ca - calcium Na - sodium Fe - iron
P - phosphorus K - potassium Zn - zinc
Mg - magnesium Cu - copper Mn - manganese




 

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